A. S. Pavlov 1,2, D.V. Alexandrov 1,3, A. A. Petrov 2
1Proffessional ice hockey club CSKA, Moscow, Russia;
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow;
3Ministry of Physical Culture and Sports of the Moscow Region.
Abstract. The tactical training in modern ice hockey is one of the key problems that widely discussed among the sport specialists nowadays. The concept of tactics presented in theory and methods of ice hockey does not fully reflect the predetermining aspects of effective tactical training of ice hockey players. In this regard, an alternative definition of the term «ice hockey tactics» has been proposed. The limiting factors that prevent the effective training of tactical actions are noted. It is proposed to correlate the tactical training in ice hockey with the theory of functional systems of P.K. Anokhin. A classification of training exercises developed by A.P.Bondarchuk has been expanded. The introduction of a block of tactical training exercises into the classification of training exercises using in preparation of ice hockey players is justified.
Keywords: ice hockey, tactics, tactical training exercises, classification of training exercises.
Introduction. Tactical preparedness of the hockey players and the hockey team is one of the determining factors of the team’s performance in competitions. In training hockey players have always paid attention to their tactical training. Anatoly Vladimirovich Tarasov also wrote that the team, in which hockey players have technical and tactical skills, will always be a strong team. V.P. Savin, professor of the Department of theory and methods of hockey at the Russian State University of Physical Culture, doctor of pedagogical sciences, in his textbook considered the concept of «tactics» as a rational construction and organization of collective and individual actions of hockey players with the optimal use of means and methods of playing against opponents to achieve victory . Thus, the components of tactical actions of a hockey team are individual, group and team actions. Offensive and defensive actions are considered separately in hockey theory. The process of learning tactical interactions of hockey players includes theoretical and practical training with direct training on the ice of specific individual, group and team tactical tasks.
А. P. Bondarchuk (2014) developed a convenient classification of training exercises for sports practice: general preparatory exercises, special preparatory exercises, special developmental exercises and competitive exercises . Taking into account the variety of technical methods and actions of hockey players a game, it was suggested to allocate training exercises of technical orientation [3, 4, 5].
The purpose of the research: substantiate the necessity of introducing a separate block of tactical training exercises into the classification of training exercises using in preparation of ice hockey players.
Research methods. The theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature about theory and methods of sports, theory and methods of ice hockey were carried out.
Main part. It is difficult to attribute the work on tactical training of hockey players to one of the above described training means of sports training due to the peculiarities and conditions of exercises and their specific orientation. In connection with the above it seems reasonable to distinguish separate tactical training exercises in the preparation of ice hockey players (figure 1).
These exercises can be «built» into the specialized complex-variative method of construction of a year cycle for the preparation of qualified hockey players [3, 4, 5]. It should be stressed that the tactical training of a hockey team is based on the degree of mastery and the amount of technical skills that each player has. That is, the level of technical readiness of hockey players is the basis for the formation of their tactical individual, group and team actions and determines the very possibility of mastering these or those tactical techniques of hockey. Canadian specialist Sean Finn during his report at a conference on the problems of training hockey players, held in the Museum of Hockey Glory in 2017, said the following: «No matter how physically and tactically advanced a hockey player is, he will never become a professional if he can’t skate and doesn’t have many other technical components.
Moreover, the weakest link in the technical readiness of each hockey player in their line, will be the «limiting factor» in relation to the success of the tactical task that the coach gave. This «limiting factor» will hinder the development of possible tactical actions for the following reasons:
1) Lack of sufficient maneuverability in skating technique, speed of the hockey player to take a certain position on the ice at a strictly defined moment.
2) Insufficient skill of the hockey stick and the puck: lack of skill in puck possession (unnecessary short puck movements without necessity, lack of puck control with visual control); lack of stable skill in receiving and making a pass from forehand and backhand; lack of a stable shooting skill (in motion, from a pass for a one touch shot, making a shot from non-standard positions, etc.).
3) Performing motor activities against a serious of events that may hinder those actions: «obstacles» to the game actions, created by the opponent’s players; increasing the execution speed of the action; decreasing the playing space, etc.
The training of lines in each specific game scheme can to some extent be correlated with the theory of functional systems . Thus, construction of tactical interactions of hockey players in concrete game situations can be considered as a construction of functional systems of the highest order. Accordingly, tactical training of ice hockey players should be directed on construction of such systems of interrelations of players in various game situations which would meet requirements of their greatest efficiency.
Research results. In the preparation of ice hockey players in training them for certain variants of tactical actions in a particular game situation, at first theoretical training with a clear formation of an idea of tasks and sequence of actions is carried out, then in practice purposeful exercises of tactical orientation with conditionally limited freedom of game actions are carried out. The essence consists in forming the most effective stereotype of actions in a particular game situation for a hockey player. In this case, the intermediate and final results of the exercises are analyzed and the level of technical play of a hockey player is assessed. According to the results of the analysis of tactical exercises, certain corrections must be made in the direction and content of technical exercises performed in the training process of the team to eliminate «weak links» in the level of special preparation of hockey players.
In connection with the above it is proposed to introduce the following definition of tactics of hockey into the theory and practice of hockey: tactics of hockey is the most effective way to organize defensive and attacking actions of a team, ensuring the implementation of individual sports skills of each of the hockey players in a line in terms of interacting with partners and counteracting the opponent in order to achieve high sports results.
Conclusion. Thus, tactical training is an integral part of the process of training hockey players, which is in essence a logical continuation of the training of hockey players in technical areas. It ensures that athletes have a clear idea of their whereabouts on the ice at any given game moment. The content and systematic development of tactical interactions in the training process, in which hockey players are offered to master the most effective solutions in a particular game situation, along with continuous work on the level of technical readiness of hockey players, will inevitably lead to positive dynamics in the results of the team’s performance at competitions.
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2. Bondarchuk, A.P. Stage-Mixed Methods of Constructing the Preparatory Period / A.P. Bondarchuk // Olimpiyskiy Bulletin / Tsentr. olimp. acad. – М. – 2014. – N 15. ¬– pp. 132-136.
3. Pavlov, A.S. Complex program of long-term preparation in sports schools (in Russian) / A.S. Pavlov, N.N. Uryupin, A.E. Deev, S.E. Pavlov. — Moscow: OntoPrint Publishing House, 2019 – 164 p.
4. Pavlov, A.S. Modern principles of sports pedagogics realized in stage specialized complex-variative method of construction of a year cycle of preparation of qualified hockey players / A.S. Pavlov, A.E. Deev, S.E. Pavlov // Pedagogical, psychological and medicobiological problems of physical culture and sports, Volume 12, No 2, Naberezhnochelni State Pedagogical University, 2017 – pp. 86-96.
5. Pavlov, S.E. Modern technologies of the high qualification sportsmen preparation (in Russian) / S.E. Pavlov, A.S. Pavlov, T.N. Pavlova — Moscow: OntoPrint Publishing House, 2019. – 294 p.
6. Savin, V.P. Theory and methods of ice hockey: Textbook for students of higher educational institutions. — Moscow: Academia Publishing Centre, 2003. – 400 p.
Information about authors:
Pavlov Alexander Sergeevich, PhD, senior methodist of the CSKA Hockey school, Moscow, Russia.
Alexandrov Dmitry Valerievich, advisor to the president of the hockey club CSKA, Moscow, Russia; advisor to the minister of physical culture and sports of the Moscow region.
Petrov Alexander Alexandrovich, lecturer of the Department of theory and methodology of hockey in the name of A.V. Tarasova of Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow, Russia; video coach-analyst of Russia women’s national ice hockey team, Moscow, Russia.
Pavlov, A.S. Modern concept of tactical training in ice hockey / A.S. Pavlov, D. V. Alexandrov, A. A. Petrov // Спортивно-педагогическое образование. – 2021. – №1. – С. 16-18.