A. S. Pavlov1,2, A. E. Deev1, D. A. Levin1, A. A. Petrov2
1Proffessional ice hockey club CSKA, Moscow, Russia;
2Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow.
Abstract. The article discusses one of the topical issues in relation to the preparation of hockey players. Considering that the training of a qualified hockey player is a complex and long-term process, the nutrition of an athlete should be considered as a very important part of the preparation that ensures the recovery of the athlete’s organism and increases his performance. Nutrition must provide a functional request of his body to receive energy substrates and «building» material. Generally accepted norms of daily caloric intake for children are presented. Sports nutritionists declare the need to increase these norms considering the volume and intensity of training loads of specific sport. Aspects of nutrition composition for hockey players are presented. Anthropometric data, individual characteristics of the athlete, the volume and characteristics of the training and competitive loads — the main aspects in the formation of the diet. According to the researches the content of basic nutrients in the diet of young athletes should strive for the following proportions: proteins — 14-15%, fats — 25%, carbohydrates 60-61%. Meals should be varied and complex because of the consumption of mixed foods increases metabolism by 6%. It is recommended applying split meals at high physical loads, 5-6 times a day with easily digestible foods — chicken, fish, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits. Experts recommend to carry out minimal thermal processing of products if it’s possible to preserve vitamins and minerals in them. It is stated that fruits and vegetables should make up at least 10-15% of the total diet per day. It is stated that food intake should be no later than 2-3 hours before the training session.
Key words: ice hockey, young athlete, sports nutrition, sport supplement, energy restore.
Introduction. The training of a qualified hockey player is a complex, long-term process that is not limited to the framework of training sessions, but includes many integral components. On the way to achieving the highest degree of athleticism there are no trifles. Among other things, a separate place is occupied by the athlete’s nutrition, as part of his training process, which ensures the normal functioning and restoration of the athlete’s body after receiving training and competitive burdens on the body. The nutrition of an athlete should be considered as providing a functional request of his body to receive energy substrates and «building» material. It is particularly worth noting the importance of satisfying the functional demand of the body of a young athlete, since during the period of active growth of the body, the lack or excess of certain substrates can lead to impaired physical and mental development, decreased performance, weakened immunity, which undoubtedly affects the athletic performance and prospects of young athletes.
The purpose and objectives of the research: to analyze and give recommendations on the composition of the diet of young hockey players for the full recovery of the body and to increase its level of training.
Research methods. To solve the set tasks we carried out theoretical analysis and generalization of scientific and methodological literature about nutrition in sports.
Main part. In the publications of nutritionists, it is customary to initially evaluate the total caloric intake of the diet recommended to an athlete. Generally accepted norms of daily caloric intake for children and young people not involved in sports: 5-6 years — 2000 kcal / day, 7-10 years — 2500 kcal / day, 11-13 years — 3000 kcal / day, 14-16 years — 3500 kcal / day. Athletes on the recommendations of sports nutritionists should add at least 500-1000 kcal / day to these indicators, depending on the size and nature of the training loads.
No less important is the specific component of the daily diet of a young athlete. According to the recommendations of scientist S. G. Makarova (2015), the content of basic nutrients in the diet of young athletes should strive for the following proportions: proteins — 14-15%, fats — 25%, carbohydrates 60-61%.
Hockey is a sport that requires significant energy expenditure — due to the high intensity and duration of training and competitive activities. Carbohydrates — the main source of energy, provide up to 57% of the energy value of the daily diet. When the organism receives a sufficient amount of carbohydrates, proteins and fats as energy sources are not spent. Carbohydrates are divided into simple and complex. Simple carbohydrates are divided into monosaccharides (glucose, fructose, galactose) and disaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose) — characterized by rapid absorption and use of the body to form glycogen. Glucose is absorbed the fastest and is used to nourish the tissues of the brain and muscles, and is formed in the body during the breakdown of disaccharides and starch. Contained in many fruits and berries. It is necessary to allocate fructose as a valuable digestible carbohydrate, the main source are fruits and berries, while up to 70-80% of fructose is retained in the liver and does not cause blood sugar overload. Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) include starch, inulin, glycogen, cellulose. A special place is occupied by starch, which is contained in cereals and pasta (55-70%), in legumes (40-45%), in bread (30-40%), is digested for a relatively long time and is characterized by a gradual intake of glucose into the blood. The greater the volume and intensity of muscle work, the greater the need for carbohydrates. According to A. P. Laptev (1999), a large amount of carbohydrates is contained in honey (80 g), rice (70 g), buckwheat (66 g), and oatmeal (60 g) cereals. It is important to know that glucose entering the body of an athlete as part of a sports drink during training sessions or competitions, is used by the body immediately to cover energy expenditure, saving its own energy resources. At the same time, glucose, which was introduced into the body after a workout or competition, will mainly serve as a source for recovery in the liver and muscles of previously used glycogen stores. An excess of carbohydrate intake leads to increased work of the pancreas and can cause insulin-deficient states (characterized, among other things, by an increase in blood sugar levels), and also increases lipid metabolism towards the formation of a fatty component.
Domestic and foreign researchers agree that proteins are an important component of the athlete’s diet. Proteins — the main building material that is involved in the construction and constant renewal of tissues and cells of the human body. Proteins are part of many hormones, essential for the metabolism of vitamins and minerals. When replenishing energy costs, proteins are not as effective as carbohydrates and fats, but they can also perform this function. Structural units of proteins are amino acids. There are 20 types of amino acids, which are divided into replaceable (synthesized in the human body) and essential (enter the body from the outside with food). It is proved that the absence or lack of at least one amino acid can lead to a number of disruptions in the body, namely: cessation of growth, weight loss and increased morbidity of the body. Researchers in the field of biochemistry of sports and nutrition of athletes N. A. Golberg, R. R. Dondukovskaya (2012) believe that the daily protein intake for children 4-6 years of age is 3.5 g / kg body weight per day; 7-11 years old — 3 g / kg; 12-15 years — 2.5 g / kg. Therefore, the composition of the daily ration of a hockey player must necessarily include foods with high protein content (meat, fish, dairy products, legumes, grains, etc.). The most effective in terms of digestibility are animal proteins in comparison with vegetable: dairy products and meat — 93-98%, cereals and legumes — 70-80%. Food should include both animal and plant proteins. Attention should be paid to the ineffectiveness of taking protein drugs (in the form of nutritional supplements) during or immediately after exercise. In this case, proteins are not used as a building material for muscles, but as an energy source, the splitting (breaking down) of which also requires additional energy from its own reserves.
Fats are indispensable for normal metabolism in the body. Fats are a source of energy, which are 2.2 times higher than carbohydrates and proteins in this indicator. Fats are part of the protoplasm and membranes of cells, nervous tissue, hormones. Fats have a stimulating effect on the central nervous system. The composition of food fats includes vitamins A, D, E, K and biologically active substances related to lipids. Fats contribute to better absorption of food. Restrictions in the use of fat lead to slower growth and weight loss, there are dysfunctions of the central nervous system, liver, kidneys, endocrine glands, and skin. It is important for a substance that is in fat to enter the body, polyunsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic), which is also called vitamin F. They are not synthesized in the body and therefore must be supplied with food. Vegetable fats are the richest in polyunsaturated fatty acids (corn oil, olive oil, sunflower oil), 20-30 g of vegetable oil is covered in their daily need. The greatest amount of fat is found in vegetable oils (up to 99.9 g per 100 g of product), lard (90 g), butter (up to 82.5 g), mayonnaise (67 g), cod liver (66.7 g), pork (49.3 g).
It should not be forgotten that one of the important means of prophylaxis in conditions of intense training and competition is the timely and correct supplement of the mineral composition of the body, and therefore the role of microelements in the metabolic status of young athletes is of paramount importance. The most important microelements for the body are calcium, magnesium, potassium, chromium, iron, zinc and selenium. The need for the above microelements can and should be filled with macronutrients. Thus, calcium is found in dairy products, fish, almonds. The need of the body for potassium and magnesium will help to satisfy fresh milk and meat, cereals, carrots, potatoes, as well as fresh fruits (apricots, peaches, bananas).
Research results. The diet of a hockey player should be based on these main indicators:
— anthropometric data of the athlete (body weight, height, gender, body composition data);
— the volume and characteristics of the training and competitive loads of an athlete;
— individual characteristics and nutritional habits of an athlete.
In preparing the diet of a young athlete, preference should be given to freshly prepared food, fresh products. Thermal processing of products is recommended to carry out the minimum necessary time for the preservation of vitamins and minerals in them — while the assimilation of such food takes less time and energy from the human body (S. A. Oleinik, 2008). Meals should be varied and complex, since the consumption of mixed foods increases metabolism by 6%. Specialists (S. V. Bulbanovich, I. N. Brusova, 2013) recommend applying split meals at high physical loads, 5-6 times a day with easily digestible foods — chicken, fish, cottage cheese, vegetables, fruits. Fruits and vegetables should make up at least 10-15% of the total diet per day. Food intake should be no later than 2-3 hours before the training session. According to the recommendations of F. H. Dzgoeva (2013), 30-60 minutes before a training session to maintain sufficient carbohydrate levels and improve the bioavailability of amino acids, it is recommended to take easily digestible carbohydrates and a portion of protein (50 g of carbohydrates and 5-10 g of protein — sports protein bars, chocolate candy bars). According to research, the ideal drink during training (in composition and digestibility) is coconut milk. Nevertheless, specialized sports glucose-containing drinks, which to some extent contribute to maintaining the efficiency of an athlete’s body, have received widespread use in sports. After a training session or game, you should prefer cocoa with natural milk. The nutrition of a young athlete should be optimal, both quantitatively and qualitatively, and correspond to the needs of his body.
In sports, and in hockey in particular, the use of biologically active additives (BAA) is widespread. BAA’s act as an additional source of food and biologically active substances, substrates for biochemical reactions, contribute to the optimization of metabolism in the human body and ensures optimal functioning organs and systems of the human body. The most widely used BAA’s in hockey are protein, amino acids, carbohydrate and carbohydrate-mineral drinks. The use of BAA’s is part of the medical and biological support of the training process, and therefore should be taken only on the recommendation of a sports physician, who determines the need to take a particular product. The main purpose of BAA’s is to ensure the recovery processes in the athlete’s body by meeting its needs for energy and building substrates. It is important to understand that BAA’s are not able to replace the main food supply and can act only as an additional component of the athlete’s nutrition. Assigning BAA’s to an athlete should be determined by the appropriateness of receiving a specific product and the dose of taking this product. You should know that excessive use of protein drugs in particular (proteins, amino acids) increases the load on the systems responsible for the utilization of protein breakdown, and in extreme cases provokes the inhibition of the synthesis of the body’s own proteins. In addition, excessive consumption of protein foods leads to impaired renal function, and the emergence of a negative calcium balance (McArdle W.D. and etc, 2013).
Conclusion. Thus, the nutrition of a young athlete is an integral part of the whole process of training athletes. Proper nutrition and reasonable reception of dietary supplements (coordinated with a specialist) will not teach a young athlete to play hockey, but will allow to adequately ensure the recovery of the body of a young hockey player and increase the level of his special fitness.
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Pavlov, A. S. General principles of nutrition for young hockey players / A. S. Pavlov, A.Y. Deev, D. A. Levin, A. A. Petrov [Электронный ресурс] // Спортивно-педагогическое образование: сетевое издание. – 2020. – №4. – С. 20-23. URL: http://www.sporgufk.ru/sites/www.sporgufk.ru/files/no4-2020_spo_setevoe_izdanie.pdf
Information about authors:
- Pavlov Alexander Sergeevich, PhD, senior methodist of the CSKA Hockey school, Moscow, Russia.
- Levin Dmitriy Alekseevich, doctor of the CSKA Hockey school, Moscow, Russia.
- Deev Alexey Evgenievich, director of the CSKA Hockey school, Moscow, Russia.
- Petrov Alexander Alexandrovich, lecturer of the Department of theory and
methodology of hockey in the name of A.V. Tarasova of Russian State
University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE), Moscow, Russia; video coach-analyst of Russia women’s national ice hockey team, Moscow, Russia.
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