Pavlov A.S., PhD, senior methodist of Hockey School CSKA;
lecturer of Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE)
Deev A.Y., director of Hockey School CSKA
Petrov A.A., lecturer of Russian State University of Physical Education, Sports, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE);
video coach of National Women Ice Hockey Team of Russia
Abstract. The article discusses the problems of off-ice training’s specificity in ice hockey. It is stated that an emphasis on the specifics of the sport will increase the effectiveness of training in general and eliminate the technical shortcomings of each individual hockey player.
Keywords: ice hockey, off-ice training, specificity of training.
Introduction. In ice hockey for several decades now, great emphasis has been placed on the training of hockey player’s off-ice, the so-called general physical training . The importance of training sessions «on the ground» in terms of preparing a high-class hockey player is unreasonably brought to the fore as the basis for the formation of specific ice skills. In other words, the opinion that a poor shot by a hockey player is a sign of poorly developed muscles of the upper body, and in no case a sign of weak technical training, which means elementary inability of the hockey player to properly perform the corresponding shooting movement.
Main part. Many sports specialists and practitioners in the first place, from different sports, have long proved that “general physical training” plays a secondary role and cannot be the dominant link in the training of qualified athletes and cannot replace specialized training sessions in a particular sport. General physical training does not exist because any physical training is specific and focused, so we should always talk about special physical training, despite the fact that it is an integral and inseparable part of a holistic training process . It is important to understand that training on the ground in hockey is necessary and should be directed mainly at:
1. Teaching stick handling techniques (controlling, deking, passing, shooting) using specialized training equipment.
2. Strengthening of anabolic processes in the body and further «processing» of general physical training (jumps, exercises with weights / with the weight of your own body, etc.) to increase the special fitness of the hockey player.
3. Creating the necessary muscle corset in order to minimize the risk of injury (which also depends on the technical skills of the hockey player).
In connection with the above, the coach should think about why it is necessary to perform this or that exercise “on the ground”, what it can give the hockey player and what positive and negative points to bring.
Most hockey players are familiar with the example of the negative impact of previous training work on the ground, when after running on the ground it is impossible to accelerate or change the pace when going out on the ice, the leg muscles quickly become clogged — the hockey player begins to fall out of the game process. The same applies to stickhandling: excessive training work in the gym on the upper shoulder body leads to stiffening of the arm muscles and the athlete’s inability later on the ice to perform precise smooth movements with a stick, while the number of technical defects (losses) in control of the puck grows. From pedagogical and physiological points of views, and as practice shows, hockey players should have training sessions on the ground (off-ice training) no more than 2 times a week, the duration of the training should be 30-60 minutes depending on the age group. At the same time, self-training of athletes at home is possible in terms of stickhandling — 30-40 minutes daily. At a minimum, the trainer should select a set of exercises that is most oriented specifically to competitive exercises, and the use of specialized ice hockey simulators is desirable (draw 1).
Draw 1. Modern means of specialized hockey training for training sessions on the ground
In view of the lack of the necessary amount of ice training time for improving stickhandling, it is extremely important in training on the ground to pay special attention to a set of exercises with a stick using a ball or a special puck, with which the movements are as close as possible to ice training work.
Stickhandling training on the ground is aimed at: improving the accuracy of movements, increasing the speed of the hands, working out the change of pace of the puck or ball, minimizing losses. The complex includes the following exercises: stickhandling the ball or puck in all areas around yourself; short-medium-wide stickhandling movements; stickhandling the ball or puck at different tempos (slow and fast); deking eights, triangles, flips, pushes; passing in pairs; practicing shots.
Moreover, the specified exercises with stickhandling balls or pucks should be performed during training (between exercises, for example: a series of push-ups is carried out and after you stickhandle at a different paces) and after training in the gym for a positive transfer of fitness from non-specific exercises to specific hockey work.
This particularly applies to the implementation of various strength exercises in the gym: an introduction to the preparation of training exercises with stickhandling allows you to eliminate the subsequent effects of «stiffness» in the movements on ice.
Of course, it is possible, depending on the stage of preparation, to a certain extent, the use of general preparatory exercises is effective: push-ups, pull-ups, bench press, dumbbell lifts, etc.
Results. However, when building off-ice training sessions, hockey players should be guided by the principles of specificity and feasibility of means and methods of preparation: the exercises should be as close as possible to ice work and focused on the growth of hockey skills and improving the characteristics of specific movements [1,2]. The more specific the selected exercises, the greater the effect will be in training sessions on the ice. As an example, the following exercises should be given:
1. For the formation of the correct hockey stance, corresponding isometric exercises are performed on the ground with the selected position held for a specified period of time.
2. For the development of «explosive» qualities of a hockey player, jumping exercises are used.
3. When learning to skate for the formation of the correct movements, the formation of the correct technique of skating and the necessary amplitude of movement, work is performed on a special hockey slider or on a skating hockey simulator.
4. In order to learn how to shoot and improve its characteristics (strength of the shot, speed of its completion, reaction time to the target, accuracy of the shot), it is necessary to perform shooting exercises off-ice with a normal net, or on an automated specialized shooting simulator.
Such a method of building off-ice training work in hockey with an emphasis on the specifics of the sport will increase the effectiveness of training in general and, to a certain extent, eliminate the technical shortcomings of each individual hockey player and develop the characteristics of specific movements (stickhandling, shooting, passes, stance, skating).
1. Pavlov, A. S. Complex program of long-term preparation in sports schools (in Russian) / A.S. Pavlov, N.N. Uryupin, A.E. Deev, S.E. Pavlov. — Moscow: OntoPrint Publishing House, 2019 – 164 p.
2. Pavlov, S. E. Modern technologies of the high qualification sportsmen preparation (in Russian) / S.E. Pavlov, A.S. Pavlov, T.N. Pavlova — Moscow: OntoPrint Publishing House, 2019. – 294 p.
3. Savin, V.P. Theory and methods of ice hockey: Textbook for students of higher educational institutions. — Moscow: Academia Publishing Centre, 2003. – 400 p.
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