Pavlov A. S.
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE)
The aim of the work of a coach is rising of the complex of condition level of particular athlete. Unanimity of all the parts of training elite sportsmen can be realized exceptionally on the basis of knowledge and practical use by all the specialists, working with sportsmen, of really working physiological laws and theory and methods of sport training based on these laws (drawing 1).
Drawing 1. Unity of the component parts of the process of training and preparing athletes.
Absolute majority of sport specialists ignore real laws of adaptation as there has not been created general theory of sport and accordingly there are no efficient theories and methods of sport training per different kinds of sports. Disconnection of the basic scientific and practical directions of sportsmen’s training has come to its absolute which has made it already completely impossible to create the necessary for sports modern service of medical and biological ensuring of athletes.
In accordance with the functioning adaptation laws: any specific human activity is absolutely specific according to the parameters of this activity and to structural and functional characteristics of the work of the organism, fulfilling this activity. Absolute specificity of each particular activity of an organism always causes an absolute specificity of structural and functional expenditures and consequently – absolute specificity of rehabilitation processes and adaptation changes which lie in the basis of physiological mechanisms of the rise of athlete’s efficiency (S. E. Pavlov, 2010). In view of the aforesaid: in training a sportsman, first of all, there must be observed principles of specificity and optimization of sports and pedagogical process construction.
Absolute functional specificity of functional systems of specific behavior acts is defined by equally absolute structural specificity of these functional systems’ components, which «mutual assistance» provides for the realization of the specific behavior acts. One of the mechanisms, supporting specific mutual relationships between components of a specific functional system, can be a mechanism of aimed redistribution of peripheral blood circulation with primary guaranty for physiological components, participating in the work of the system (S. E. Pavlov, 2000, 2010; S. Pavlov, Z. Ordzhonikidze, T. Kuznetsova, 2001).
In accordance with the above:
1. The organism is always working as an integrated mechanism, and «forms» behavioral acts — in strict accordance to the conditions that the organism is put to.
2. Stable motor acts are formed by repeating specific movements correctly multiple times.
3. Any activity of the organism is extremely specific to its external parameters, and also on the structural and functional characteristics of this certain activity.
4. Adaptive changes, which underlie the raising of complex of condition level, is carried out by specific training activities.
Drawing 2. The effectiveness of specific training activities: average group results of tests (time of 9 meters skate racing from the start) of hockey players from the main and control groups «1» and «2» (Pavlov S.E., Cherenkov D.R., Davidov A.P., Pavlov A.S., 2008)
Special attention should be paid to the choice of means and methods of rehabilitation and improvement of the athletes’ efficiency. Simple summation of unlimited numbers of these means and methods not only does not guarantee a positive effect of their use but can be resulted in a considerable decrease of sportsman’s special efficiency and, accordingly, in deterioration of his sporting results. And it is necessary to remember: effects of the activity of any means and methods of rehabilitation and rise of efficiency are realized in the organism due to physiological mechanisms existing in it.
An effective complex of actions aiming at the rise of the condition level and athletic effectiveness cannot be constructed in separation from the sport and pedagogical process and not taking into consideration its peculiarities (drawing 3). One of the most important aspects of this complex is satisfaction of a specific functional demand of the sportsman’s organism performing some specific training and emulative (competitive) work under certain conditions.
Drawing 3. Complex use of rehabilitation means and rise of efficiency in training.
The choice of means of specific sporting effectiveness stimulation today seems to be extremely difficult because their greatest part is included into the list of means and methods prohibited for application in sports. However knowledge of the laws of physiology makes it possible to use means and methods of non-specific stimulation of the organism’s physiological activity, allowed for application in sports, for stimulation of its specific functions. In this case a compulsory condition to achieve a higher complex of condition level and higher sportive results is application of extremely specific and optimal training loads.
In our research we used the possibilities of enhancing the sporting work capacity with applying the low-energy lasers on athletes on the base of modern conceptions. It’s about mechanisms of energy supply of athlete’s organism and its rehabilitation after physical loads and effects on interacting the low-intensity laser light with biological object. The effectiveness of complex measures with hockey players assessed by the test — running on the 26 meters ice-skating distance.
In the experiment with participation of elite hockey players there was proved high effectiveness of complex, physiologically justified actions on the raise of the condition level of specific activity of athletes, specializing in hockey (drawing 4).
Drawing 4. Individual results of initial (light column) and final (dark column) tests (time of 26 meters skate racing from the start) by hockey players from the control (7 people) and main (5 people) groups – before and after carrying out complex actions aiming at the rise of the condition level of specific activity.
In view of the aforesaid: specificity of training determines the specificity of the functional changes of an athlete. Laser stimulation potentiates these functional changes.
Thus, practical use of the laws of physiology in developing of sport and pedagogical process and the use of modern tools and methods in raising the level of athletes’ special capacity provide an opportunity to improve capacity of hockey players.
Pavlov A. S. Individual complex preparing of hockey players // 6th Baltic Scientific Conference «Sport Science for Sustainable Society» / April 23-25, 2013, Riga, Latvia – C. 27