Pavlov A. S., Petrov A. A.
Russian State University of Physical Education, Sport, Youth and Tourism (SCOLIPE)
Introduction. Improvement of specific high-speed qualities of hockey players is one of the tasks that needs to be addressed in the course of long-term skilled players training.
The purpose and methods of research. In the experiment (6 weeks of training worth of micro-cycles) we studied the possibility of increasing skating speed from the start of skilled hockey players at the age from 17 to 19. Contents of a weekly micro-cycle includes: testing of hockey players and two training days (players performed specific work on speed). The testing was carried out once a week (before the start of the experiment, during the experiment and at the end of the experiment). It consisted of threefold skating of a distance of 9 and 27 meters by each of the experiment participants. When evaluating the test results of “27 meter skating» further measures were taken to time the players when they crossed the 9 and 18 meter marks.
The results of research. During the tests players recorded the following results: showed (p ≤ 0,0001) a significant improvement in the average results for the final test (1,95 ± 0,10), for skating the distance of 9 meters — compared to the average results of the initial test (2,36 ± 0,09); showed (p ≤ 0,0001) a significant improvement in the average results of the final test (4,23 ± 0,13), for skating the distance of 27 meters — compared with the average results of the initial test (4,54 ± 0,12). Showed a high degree of correlation with the results of the average time (t (c)) for skating the distance of 9 meters and 9 meters during the distance of 27 meters — in all tests. Analysis of «equity contribution» for the average results of skating the distance of 27 meters — in 9 meter intervals (starting line) and 18 meters (finish line) revealed: showed (p ≤ 0,0001) a significant improvement in the average result of the final test (1,99 ± 0,07), Compared to the average result of the initial test (2,43 ± 0,08) – in skating the segment of 9 meters from 27 meters; showed (p ≤ 0,01) negative results in the average of the final test (4,23 ± 0,13), compared to the average results of the initial test (4,54 ± 0,12) — in skating the segment of 18 meters from 27 meters (Figure 1).
Fig. 1. Average group results (t (c) — the time in seconds) tests «1», «2», «3», «4», «5», «6» and «7» of hockey players — skating the distance of 9 meters («a»), 9 of 27 meters («b») and 18 of 27 meters («c»).
Findings. Showed significant improvement in the average results of skating the distances of 9 meters and 27 meters due to the effects of the training regime and training loads, we used special high-speed training for players for 6 weeks of the experiment. The same effect and a positive effect for the “transfer of training”, is explained by the high degree of correlation with the results of the average time of three fold skating the distances for 9 meters and the segment of 9 meters (at a distance of 27 meters). The effect of a positive «transfer of training» is due to the fact that at a distance of 9 meters and the opening segment 9 meters from 27 meters is using the same «explosive» technique in skating. A negative effect for the average skating time in the final segment of 18 meters (at a distance of 27 meters) is due to the fact that during the distance players use a technique of long distance skating, the main training tasks in our experiments were based on «explosive» skating which effects starting speed at a distance of 9 meters. The “transfer of training” from one type of method, “explosive” skating, to another, long distance skating, gave negative results, since they are two different methods.
Conclusion. Thus, contrary to popular opinion in sport pedagogy, «speed qualities» as other «physical qualities» in the living organism can be trained not only during the «sensitive periods», but at the age from 17 to 19. In this case, to get the desired result, the body has to be trained in environment which is able to develop its specific «speed qualities.»
The results of this study confirm the effectiveness of the law on structural and functional specificity of concrete motor acts [S. E. Pavlov, 2010] and the evidence in favor of the claim is that nonobjective «physical characteristics» do not exist [S. E. Pavlov, 2010; S. E. Pavlov, T. Pavlova, 2011].
Taking into account the opinion of V. Nikonov (2003) — «… A small correlation between the individual manifestations of speed qualities greatly reduces the possibility of «transfer of training» from one exercise to another. So … between the start and remote speed … there is no correlation, so to develop and improve them, it needs to be purposefully aimed … «. Originally it was not expected to have a positive «transfer of training» with «explosive» skating and gliding. But the surprise was that it showed a negative, «transfer of training» from one method to another, which should be taken into account in the construction of the training processes of skilled players.
Pavlov A. The display of negative «transfer of training» while working with starting speeds of hockey players / Pavlov A., Petrov A. // The VIII Annual International Conference for Students and Young Researchers “Modern University Sport Science”, RSUPESY&T – M. , 2014. – 130 p.
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