Pavlov A.S., Petrov A.A.
Annotation. The body of an athlete is a holistic physiological unit that obeys the laws of physiology. According to these laws the so-called «physical qualities» of an organism do not exist and work on the development of one or another «physical quality» does not guarantee its positive transfer to a sports activity. All this fully applies to the motor characteristics reflecting the level of special endurance of hockey players.
Keywords: system laws of physiology, «physical qualities», «general endurance», special endurance.
Introduction. Achieving high sports results in modern hockey requires effective training of hockey players. When planning the training process, first of all, one should take into account the fact that the athlete’s body is a whole physiological unit, and, therefore, the principles of sports training should be based on the laws of development and adaptation of the human body . Systemic laws of physiology need to follow the principles of focusing and optimizing the training loads of athletes . At the same time, it is necessary to regularly evaluate the effectiveness of the training work done by athletes, remembering that the only significant criterion for its effectiveness is the dynamics of the indicators of an athlete’s special fitness, which are assessed by the results of specific tests for the chosen sport and by the results of competitive activity of the players [1,2].
Once psychiatrist N. A. Bernshtein put forward the thesis of the existence of the so-called «physical qualities» of a person: strength, speed, endurance and agility. This thesis was taken up and elevated to the rank of «guiding star» in physical education by physical theorists V. M. Zatsiorsky (1966, etc.), L. P. Matveyev (1984, 1997, etc.) and their numerous followers — despite the fact that in 1957 competent sports specialists (N. N. Yakovlev, A. V. Korobkov, S. V. Yananis, 1957) wrote that it was necessary to speak not about the «physical qualities» of an athlete, but about the characteristics of his specific movements. Current knowledge of the fundamentals of physiology confirms the validity of the statements of the latter [2,3]. Independent «physical qualities» do not exist, but there are interrelated and interdependent characteristics of specific motor acts of the body, aimed at achieving a specific result of from its activities [2,3]. However, in the theory and methodology of physical education and in the practice of hockey ideas about the existence of «physical qualities» and the need of separate work on their development have long been rooted. One of these «qualities» is considered «endurance». In sports pedagogy it is customary to single out «general» and «special» endurance. V.N. Platonov (2005) proposes to understand «general endurance» as «the ability of an athlete to perform non-specific activities for a long time». The same author offers to understand «special endurance» as «the ability of an athlete to effectively perform competitive work and overcome fatigue during their performance.»
The development of «general endurance» in hockey is given much attention in the preparatory period at the general preparatory stage of preparation. The most common means of developing «general endurance» among hockey players on the ground is «cross-country running». At the same time, coaches do not take into account the fact that running «on the ground» in its structural and functional characteristics and in its biomechanics of movement is fundamentally different from running on ice with skates . In studies of Finnish experts the lack of increased endurance is proved by the results of bicycle endurance tests in the group of hockey players, who in their training used cross-country running . In our studies , it was revealed that the use of «cross-country running» in the training of hockey players does not lead to an increase in the special fitness of hockey players and, moreover, can lead to its regression.
Main part. In our new study, we studied the relationship «general» and «special» endurance of hockey players, using these next tests: «running on track for 3000m and «shuttle skating» on the ice at a distance of 4x54m.» These tests are considered informative for assessing the «endurance» of hockey players and are actively used by coaches of youth and professional hockey teams. The «shuttle skating» test at a distance of 4x54m is a modified version of the «shuttle skating» test on ice at a distance of 5х54m , chosen in accordance with the age and qualification capabilities of hockey players participating in our study. The study was conducted in the preparatory period of the annual training cycle of the junior hockey team. 10 hockey players took part in the tests (forwards and defenders, age 16 years old). The results were processed using methods of mathematical statistics. The following results were calculated and evaluated: arithmetic average (x), standard deviation ( ), correlation (r) between the analyzed parameters. The results are shown in table 1.
Table 1. The results of testing the «general» and «special» endurance of qualified hockey players (age — 16 years old) in the preparatory period of a one-year training cycle.
Results. The value of the correlation coefficient (r = -0.20) indicates the actual absence of a relationship between the two parameters studied, which are traditionally used to evaluate the «endurance» of hockey players. Correspondingly, the results in the test «running on track for 3000m» and the results in the test «shuttle skating» for a distance of 4x54m» are practically not interconnected, which first of all testifies to the inexpediency of using the test «running on track at a distance of 3000m» to assess the «overall endurance» of hockey players. Moreover, the data of our studies shows that the use of the cross-country run exercise in the training of hockey players is meaningless.
We have proposed an effective method for the development of special endurance among hockey players using a set of breathing exercises that develop the functions of human external respiration . This method provides an increase in the aerobic capabilities of hockey players without adversely affecting the level of their special fitness. The method has been successfully tested in practical work with qualified hockey players and can be effectively used in the long-term training of hockey players of any qualification.
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3. Technology of training athletes / S. E. Pavlov, T. N. Pavlova — MO, Shchelkovo: Publisher Markhotin P. Yu., 2011. — 344 p.
4. Martinmäki, S. Effects of high intensity cycling interval training on endurance performance in ice-hockey players / S. Martinmäki // Master’s Thesis Science of Sports Coaching and Fitness Testing. — 2012. — 59 p.
Pavlov A.S., Candidate of Pedagogical Sciences, Senior Methodist of the CSKA Hockey School, professor at the Department of Theory and Methodology of Hockey in the name of A.V. Tarasov, RSUPE, Moscow, Russia
Petrov A.A., analyst of the women’s national hockey team of Russia, professor at the Department of Theory and Methodology of Hockey in the name of A.V. Tarasov, RSUPE, Moscow, Russia
Pavlov, A. S. The development of the special endurance of hockey players / A. S. Pavlov, A. A. Petrov // The XII Annual International Conference for Students and Young Researchers «Modern University Sport Science», RSUPESY&T – M., 2019 – P. 201-203
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